Selection Tables

1″ Bolt or dowel
Single Shear, S-P-F lumber to concrete
Wood Member Fastener
No. of fasteners in a row
2 3
Bolt spacing in a row taken as the minimum of the loaded end distance3, aL, and the spacing between bolts in a row, SR (mm)
102 152 203 254 305 102 152 203 254 305
38 140 1 0 6.32(R) 9.49(R) 12.6(R) 15.8(R) 19.0(R) 9.49(R) 14.2(R) 19.0(R) 23.7(R) 27.5(T)
38 235 2 76.2 12.6(R) 16.6(G) 19.8(G) 22.9(G) 26.1(G) 16.6(G) 21.4(G) 26.1(G) 30.9(G) 35.6(G)
38 286 2 127 12.6(R) 19.0(R) 25.3(R) 30.4(G) 33.5(G) 19.0(R) 28.5(R) 33.5(G) 38.3(G) 43.0(G)
89 140 1 0 14.8(R) 22.2(R) 29.6(R) 37.0(R) 39.0(d) 22.2(R) 33.3(R) 44.4(R) 55.5(R) 58.5(d)
89 235 2 76.2 29.6(R) 38.9(G) 46.3(G) 53.7(G) 61.2(G) 38.9(G) 50.0(G) 61.2(G) 72.3(G) 83.4(G)
89 286 2 127 29.6(R) 44.4(R) 59.2(R) 71.2(G) 78.0(d) 44.4(R) 66.7(R) 78.6(G) 89.7(G) 101(G)
140 140 1 0 18.6(R) 28.0(R) 37.3(R) 45.5(d) 45.5(d) 28.0(R) 41.9(R) 48.0(T) 48.0(T) 48.0(T)
140 241 2 76.2 29.6(G) 39.0(G) 48.3(G) 57.6(G) 59.4(T) 39.0(G) 52.9(G) 59.4(T) 59.4(T) 59.4(T)
140 292 2 127 37.3(R) 50.4(G) 59.7(G) 68.7(T) 68.7(T) 50.4(G) 64.4(G) 68.7(T) 68.7(T) 68.7(T)


  1. The tabulated values are the minimum of the yielding resistance, row shear, group tear-out and net tension resistances of the wood member, and are applicable to tension members. For compression members, the values are conservative when the governing failure mode is indicated as group tear-out or net tension since the resistance is based on yielding and row shear only.
  2. The governing failure mode for each connection configuration is denoted either by lowercase letter (a)-(g), indicating the specific yielding failure mode as per O86 Clause, or by uppercase letter (R), (G) or (T), indicating failure due to row shear, group tear-out or net tension in the main member.
  3. The minimum loaded end distance, aL, is the maximum of 50 mm and 5 times the fastener diameter (O86 Clause
  4. For the calculation of group tear-out and net tension resistances, the fastener hole diameter is assumed to be 2 mm larger than the fastener diameter.
  5. The connection resistance P'r is required to be adjusted to end-use conditions using modification factors depending on the governing failure mode as follows:
    • Pr = P'r (KD KSF KT) for yielding failure mode (a),
    • Pr = P'r  for yielding failure mode (b),
    • Pr = P'r (KDy KSF KT) for yielding failure mode (d), (e), (f) or (g),
    • Pr = P'r (KD KSv KT) for row shear,
    • Pr = P'r (KD KSt KT) for group tear-out or net tension.

    Modification factors are provided in Section 7.4 of the Wood Design Manual 2020. For untreated wood members under standard-term loading and dry service conditions, the modification factors are 1.0.

  6. Tabulated values are based on No.1/ No.2 grade for dimension lumber (38 to 102 mm in smaller dimension) and No.2 grade for timbers (114 or more in smaller dimension).
  7. Tabulated values are based on ASTM A307 grade steel bolts or dowels.
  8. For the tabulated resistances to be valid, the fastener bearing length into concrete is required to at least the same as the wood member thickness. The resistance of concrete also needs to be checked separately.
  9. N/A = not applicable.